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terminology questions: turtledeck? cantilever wing?



 
 
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Old September 11th 05, 11:09 AM
Ric
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Default terminology questions: turtledeck? cantilever wing?


"karel" wrote in message
...
lurking around here for several years has tought me very much of course,
thanks to all!
however a couple of terms pop up regularly without their meaning
becoming clear from the context, and doubtlessly they are so
self-evident to those in the know that no-one cares to explain them.
To this non-pilot (less than a year to go, though!)
who is not a native English speaker either,
a couple of terms want explanation, though.

What is the turtledeck? A part of or place in the cockpit, obviously?

What is a cantilever wing? I learned a laminar wing is one that tries
to achive laminar airflow, to some extent.
But I fancy "cantilever" rather indicates some type of construction?

BTW is there some web page anywhere carrying a glossary?
If not could we not create one & perhaps add it to Ron's FAQ list?

Karel.


ACCELERATED STALL - Any stall made to occur at other than 1g.

ACCESSORY GROUP - Mechanical and electrical units mounted on an engine
necessary for its operation, such as starter, magnetos, fuel pumps, etc.

ADCOCK RANGE - National radio navigation system replaced after World War 2
by the omnirange system. It consisted of segmented quadrants broacasting
Morse Code "A" (dot-dash) and "N" (dash-dot) signals in opposing quadrants
so that pilots could orient their position relative to a "beam" broadcasting
a steady tone, and a Morse Code station identifier. Using a "build-and-fade"
technique, a pilot could (ideally) pinpoint his location by the strength or
weakness of a signal.

ADF - Automatic Direction Finding via automated radio.

ADIABATIC LAPSE RATE - The rate at which ascending air cools and descending
air warms, given no heat is added or taken away. The rate for dry air is
based on 5.4° F per 1000' altitude (1° per 100 meters); saturated rates vary
with barometric pressures and temperatures, and must be adjusted for
accuracy.

ADVERSE YAW - Yaw generated when the ailerons are used. The lifting wing
generates more drag, causing an airplane to yaw toward it.

AGL - Above Ground Level, as a measurement of altitude above a specific land
mass, and differentiated from MSL.

AILERON - The movable areas of a wingform that control or affect the roll of
an aircraft by working opposite one another - up-aileron on the right wing
and down-aileron on the left wing. French: aileron small wing, diminutive of
aile, from Latin: ala, wing. The word "aisle" also derives from the same
root.

AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ) - The area of airspace over land or
water, extending upward from the surface, within which the ready
identification, the location, and the control of aircraft are required in
the interest of national security.


Domestic Air Defense Identification Zone - An ADIZ within the United States
along an international boundary of the United States.

Coastal Air Defense Identification Zone - An ADIZ over the coastal waters of
the United States.

Distant Early Warning Identification Zone (DEWIZ) - An ADIZ over the coastal
waters of the State of Alaska. ADIZ locations and operating and flight plan
requirements for civil aircraft operations are specified in FAR Part 99.
AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER (ARTCC) or "CENTER" - A facility
established to provide air traffic control service to aircraft operating on
IFR flight plans within controlled airspace and principally during the en
route phase of flight. When equipment capabilities and controller workload
permit, certain advisory/assistance services may be provided to VFR
aircraft.

AIR SPEED INDICATOR - An instrument or device that measures the air speed of
an aircraft through an air mass.

AIR TAXI - An aircraft operator who conducts operations for hire or
compensation in accordance with FAR Part 135 in an aircraft with 30 or fewer
passenger seats and a payload capacity of 7,500# or less. An air taxi
operates on an on demand basis and does not meet the "flight scheduled"
qualifications of a commuter.

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC) - A service operated by the appropriate authority
to promote the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic.

AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER (ATCT) - A terminal facility that uses
air/ground communications, visual signaling, and other devices to provide
ATC services to aircraft operating in the vicinity of an airport or on the
movement area. Authorizes aircraft to land or takeoff at the airport
controlled by the tower or to transit the Class D airspace area regardless
of flight plan or weather conditions (IFR or VFR). A tower may also provide
approach control services (radar or non-radar).

ALCLAD - Trademark name of Alcoa for high-strength sheet aluminum clad with
a layer (approximately 5.5% thickness per side) of high-purity aluminum,
popularly used in airplane manufacture.

ALPHABET (PHONETIC) - Devised for reasons of clarity in aviation voice
radio, this is the current NATO version in global use:



ALFA BRAVO CHARLEY DELTA ECHO FOXTROT GOLF
HOTEL INDIA JULIET KILO LIMA MIKE NOVEMBER
OSCAR PAPA QUEBEC ROMEO SIERRA TANGO
UNIFORM VICTOR WHISKY X-RAY YANKEE ZULU

The original, from early in World War 2, was:


ABLE BAKER CHARLEY DOG EASY FOX GEORGE
HOW ITEM JIG KING LOVE MIKE NAN OBOE
PETER QUEEN ROGER SUGAR TARE UNCLE VICTOR
WILLIAM X-RAY YOKE ZEBRA
ALTIMETER - An adjustable aneroid-barometic cockpit instrument used to
measure an aircraft's altitude.

AMPHIBIAN, AMPHIBION - A SEAPLANE or FLOATPLANE with retractable wheels for
use on land, as well. The latter spelling was used in the '20s and '30s but
has since fallen out of favor.

ANGLE OF ATTACK - The acute angle at which a moving airfoil meets the
airstream.

ANGLE OF INCIDENCE - The angle at which an airfoil is normally fixed in
relation to the longitudinal axis of an aircraft.

ANHEDRAL - The downward angle of a wing in relation to a horizontal
cross-section line; aka CATHEDRAL. SEE DIHEDRAL.

APPROACH CONTROL SEE RADIO NAVIGATION

APRON - The hard-surfaced or paved area around a hangar.

ARSA SEE CONTROLLED AIRSPACE

ARTIFICIAL HORIZON - A vacuum-powered panel instrument that displays pitch
and roll movements about the lateral and longitudinal axes; aka Attitude
Indicator.

ASPECT RATIO - The ratio of the span to the chord of an airfoil - a
high-aspect ratio wing has wide span and narrow chord, and vice-versa.

ATA SEE CONTROLLED AIRSPACE

ATIS SEE AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION SERVICE

AUTOGYRO, AUTOGIRO - An aircraft, often wingless, with unpowered rotary
airfoil blades that auto-rotate and serve as wings as it moves through the
air when driven by an engine. The latter spelling is a trademark of the
Autogiro Corporation.

AUTO-ROTATION - Automatic rotation of rotary blades from a helicopter in an
unpowered glide or the forward movement of an autogyro.

AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION SERVICE (ATIS) - Continuous broadcast of
recorded noncontrol information in selected terminal areas, to improve
controller effectiveness and to relieve frequency congestion by automating
repetitive transmissions of essential but routine information.

BALANCED CONTROL SURFACE - A movable control surface, as an aileron or
rudder, having an added physical extension or weights forward of the
hinge-point to reduce forces on a joystick or yoke. See ELEPHANT EARS (2).

BERNOULLI EFFECT (or LAW or THOREM) - Since the pressure of a fluid is
proportional to its velocity, airflow over the upper surface of an airfoil
causes suction [lift] because the airstream has been speeded up in relation
to positive pressure of the airflow on the lower surface.

BLEED AIR - Hot air at high pressure, usually from the bypass section of a
gas turbine engine, for de-icing, heating, and other uses.

BOUNDARY-LAYER CONTROL - The design or control of slotted or perforated
wings with suction methods to reduce undesirable aerodynamic effects caused
by the boundary layer, that region adjacent to the boundary where shear
stresses dominate in the airflow over a wingform.

BUMPED COWLING - An engine fairing, generally circular, with welts or
compound shapes in its surface to accommodate cylinder heads.

CABANE STRUT - Wing strut attached to the fuselage.

CALIBRATED AIRSPEED (CAS) - The indicated airspeed of an aircraft, corrected
for position and instrument error. CAS is equal to true airspeed in standard
atmosphere at sea level. Compare INDICATED AIRSPEED and TRUE AIRSPEED.

CAMBER - The convex or concave curvature of an airfoil.

CANARD - An arrangement in which the horizontal stabilizer and elevators of
an aircraft are mounted in front of the main wing(s).

CAT - Clear-Air Turbulence.

CATHEDRAL SEE ANHEDRAL

CAVU - Ceiling and Visibility Unlimited; ideal flying weather.

CEILING - (1) The heights above the earth's surface of the lowest layer of
clouds or obscuring phenomena that is reported as "broken," "overcast," or
"obscuration," and not classified as "thin" or "partial". (2) The maximum
height above sea level in Standard Air attainable by an aircraft under given
conditions - SEE ABSOLUTE CEILING, SERVICE CEILING.

CENTER - An Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC).

CENTER OF GRAVITY (c/g) - The longitudinal and lateral point in an aircraft
where it is stable; the static balance point.

CERTIFICATED AIRPORTAn airport operating under FAR Part 139. The FAA issues
airport operating certificates to all airports serving scheduled or
unscheduled air carrier aircraft designed for more than 30 passenger seats.
Certificated airports must meet minimum safety standards in accordance with
FAR Part 139.

CHORD - The measurable distance between the leading and trailing edges of a
wingform.

CLASS G AIRSPACE (Uncontrolled Airspace) - Airspace not designated as Class
A, B, C, D or E.

COAMING - A padded, protective rim around an open cockpit.

COLLECTIVE PITCH - A cockpit control that changes the pitch of a
helicopter's rotor blades; used in climbing or descending.

COLLECTOR RING - A circular duct on a radial engine into which exhaust gases
from its cylinders are discharged.

COMMON TRAFFIC ADVISORY FREQUENCY (CTAF) - A frequency designed for the
purpose of carrying out airport advisory practices while operating to or
from an airport without an operating control tower. The CTAF may be a
UNICOM, Multicom, FSS, or tower frequency and is identified in appropriate
aeronautical publications.

COMMUTER - An air carrier operator operating under 14 CFR 135 that carries
passengers on at least five round trips per week on at least one route
between two or more points according to its published flight schedules that
specify the times, day of the week, and places between which these flights
are performed. The aircraft that a commuter operates has 30 or fewer
passenger seats and a payload capability of 7,500# or less.

COMPASS COURSE - A bearing as indicated by the horizontal angle between the
compass needle and the centerline of the aircraft. A Compass Course is equal
to a True Course ± variation and deviation; also equal to a Magnetic Course
± deviation.

COMPASS NORTH - The North point at which a liquid compass needle points,
rather than Geographical, or True, North. Compare MAGNETIC NORTH.

CONE OF SILENCE SEE RADIO NAVIGATION

CONSTANT-SPEED PROPELLER - A hydraulically-controlled propeller that governs
an engine at its optimum speed by the blade pitch being increased or
decreased automatically.

CONTACT FLIGHT - Navigation in which altitude and flight path can be
maintained by visual reference to the ground and its landmarks. Similar to
VFR.

CONTOUR FLIGHT - Contact Flight in and around mountainous areas following
visual reference to the terrain's countours.

CONTRAILS - Streaks of condensed water vapor created in the air by aircraft
flying at high altitudes; aka Vapor Trails.

CONTROLLED AIRSPACE - An airspace of defined dimensions within which air
traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in
accordance with the airspace classification. Controlled airspace is a
generic term that covers Class A, B, C, D, and E airspace. Controlled
airspace is also that airspace within which all aircraft operators are
subject to certain pilot qualifications, operating rules, and equipment
requirements in FAR Part 91. For IFR operations in any class of controlled
airspace, a pilot must file an IFR flight plan and receive an appropriate
ATC clearance. Each B, C, and D airspace area designated for an airport
contains at least one primary airport around which the airspace is
designated (for specific designations and descriptions of the airspace
classes, refer to FAR Part 71.



Class A (formerly PCA - Positive Control Area) generally, that airspace from
18,000' mean sea level (MSL) up to and including flight level (FL) 600
(60,000' pressure altitude), including the airspace overlying the waters
within 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous States and
Alaska. Unless otherwise authorized, all persons must operate their aircraft
under IFR.


Class B (formerly TCA - Terminal Control Area) Generally, that airspace from
the surface to 10,000' MSL surrounding the nation's busiest airports in
terms of airport operations or passenger enplanements. The configuration of
each Class B airspace area is individually tailored and consists of a
surface area and two or more layers (some Class B airspace areas resemble
upside-down wedding cakes), and is designed to contain all published
instrument procedures once an aircraft enters the airspace. An ATC clearance
is required for all aircraft to operate in the area, and all aircraft that
are so cleared receive separation services within the airspace. The cloud
clearance requirement for VFR operations is "clear of clouds."


Class C (formerly ARSA - Airport Radar Service Area) Generally, that
airspace from the surface to 4,000' MSL above the airport elevation
surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower, are
serviced by a radar approach control, and that have a certain number of IFR
operations or passenger enplanements. Although the configuration of each
Class C area is individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of a
surface area with a 5 nautical mile (nm) radius, an outer circle with a 10
nm radius that extends from 1,200' to 4,000' above the airport elevation and
an outer area. Each person must establish two-way radio communications with
the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to entering the
airspace and thereafter maintain those communications while within the
airspace. VFR aircraft are only separated from IFR aircraft within the
airspace.


Class D (formerly ATA - Airport Traffic Area and CZ - Control Zone)
Generally, that airspace from the surface to 2,500' MSL above the airport
elevation surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower.
The configuration of each Class D airspace area is individually tailored and
when instrument procedures are published, the airspace will normally be
designed to contain the procedures. Arrival extensions for instrument
approach procedures may be Class D or E airspace. Unless otherwise
authorized, each person must establish two-way radio communications with the
ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to entering the airspace
and thereafter maintain those communications while in the airspace. No
separation services are provided to VFR aircraft.


Class E (formerly General Controlled Airspace) Generally, if the airspace is
not Class A, B, C, or D, and is controlled airspace, it is Class E airspace.
Class E airspace extends upward from either the surface or a designated
altitude to the overlying or adjacent controlled airspace. When designated
as a surface area, the airspace will be configured to contain all instrument
procedures. Also in this class are Federal airways, airspace beginning at
either 700' or 1,200' AGL used to transition to/from the terminal or enroute
environment, enroute domestic, and offshore airspace areas designated below
18,000' MSL. Unless designated at a lower altitude, Class E airspace begins
at 14,500' MSL over the USA, including that airspace overlying the waters
within 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous States and
Alaska, up to, but not including 18,000' MSL, and the airspace above Flight
Level 600.
CONVENTIONAL GEAR - Having two main landing wheels at the front and a
tailwheel or tailskid at the rear as opposed to having a tricycle gear with
three main wheels. Such an aircraft is popularly called a TAILDRAGGER.

COWL, COWLING - A circular, removable fairing around an aircraft engine
(generally radial) for the purposes of streamling or cooling; aka RING
COWLING.

COWL FLAP - A controllable louvre to regulating airflow through an engine's
cowling.

CRAB - A rudder-controlled yawing motion to compensate for a crosswind in
maintaining a desired flight path, as in a landing approach.

CTAF SEE COMMON TRAFFIC ADVISORY FREQUENCY

DEADSTICK - Descending flight with engine and propeller stopped.

DECALAGE - The difference in angular settings [Angles of Attack] of the
wings of a biplane or multiplane.

DECISION HEIGHT - With respect to the operation of aircraft, the height at
which point a decision must be made during an instrument approach to either
continue the approach or to execute a missed approach [abort].

DELTA-WING - A triangularly-shaped aircraft wing having a low aspect ratio,
a sharply-tapered leading edge, a straight trailing edge, and a pointed tip.

DEPARTURE CONTROL SEE RADIO NAVIGATION

DEPARTURE STALL - A stall in the takeoff configuration with power.

DEVIATION (MAGNETIC) - The error of a Magnetic Compass due to inherent
magnetic influences in the structure and equipment of an aircraft.

DEWIZ SEE AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE

DIHEDRAL - The acute angle, usually upward, between the wing of an airplane
and a horizontal cross-section line. Opposite of ANHEDRAL.

DIRECTIONAL GYRO - A panel instrument providing a gyroscopic reading of an
aircraft's compass heading.

DIRIGIBLE - A lighter-than-air craft capable of being propelled and steered
for controlled flight. Latin: dirigo,to steer.

DME - Distance Measuring Equipment, a radio navigation device that
determines an aircraft's distance from a given ground station, as well as
its groundspeed and time to/from the station.

DORSAL FIN - A lateral fin/rudder extension on the top of a fuselage.

DOWNWASH - The air deflected perpendicular to the direction of movement of
an airfoil.

DRAG - The resisting force exerted on an aircraft in its line of flight
opposite in direction to its motion. Compare THRUST.

DRAG WIRE - A wire designed to resist drag forces, usually running from a
forward inboard point to an outboard aft point.

DRIFT - The angle between the heading of an aircraft and its Track, or
flight path, over the ground as affected by winds.

DRY WEIGHT - The weight of an engine exclusive of any fuel, oil, and
coolant.

DURAL - Originally a tradename for a wrought aluminum-copper alloy created
by Bausch Machine Tool Co, now fallen into generic use as any aluminum alloy
containing 3.0-4.5% copper, 0.4-1.0% magnesium, and 0.1-0.7% manganese.
Alcoa's version is commonly referred to as "Duraluminum," popularly used in
aircaft manufacture.

EARTH-INDUCTOR COMPASS - One whose indications depend on the current
generated in a coil revolving in the earth's magnetic field.

ELEPHANT EAR - (1) An air intake characterized by twin inlets, one on each
side of the fuselage. (2) A type of balanced aileron in which the outer
edges are noticeably larger than the control itself. See BALANCED CONTROL
SURFACE and example Travel Air 4000.

ELEVATOR - The movable part of a horizontal airfoil which controls the pitch
of an aircraft; the fixed part being the STABILIZER.

ELEVON - A hinged device on the rear portion of an aircraft wing combining
the functions of an elevator and an aileron. Usually found on delta-wing
aircraft, it can be moved in the same direction on either side of the
aircraft to obtain longitudinal control, or differentially to obtain lateral
control. Also see FLAPERON.

ELT - Emergency Locator Transmitter

EMPENNAGE - An aircraft's tail group, includes rudder and fin, and
stabilizer and elevator. Old French: empenner,to feather an arrow, from
Latin penna, feather. Other words derived from the same root are panache,
pen, pin, pinnacle, and pennant.

EN ROUTE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICES - Air traffic control services
provided aircraft on IFR flight plans, generally by centers, when these
aircraft are operating between departure and destination terminal areas.
When equipment, capabilities, and controller workload permit, certain
advisory/assistance services may be provided to VFR aircraft.

ETA - Estimated Time of Arrival.

ETD - Estimated Time of Departure.

FAIRING - An added streamlining structure or auxiliary member, most often of
light metal, whose only purpose is to reduce drag. Fairings are not
load-bearing and, therefore, are not meant to carry any principal air loads
placed on the airplane structure.

FBO - Fixed-Base Operator, a commercial operator supplying fuel,
maintenance, flight training, and other services at an airport.

FAN MARKER SEE RADIO NAVIGATION

FEATHERING - In the event of engine failure, the process of adjusting a
controllable-pitch propeller to a pitch position where the blade angle is
about 90° to the plane of rotation in order to stop windmilling.

FEDERAL AIR REGULATION (FAR)

FAR Part 91 - General Aviation (portions apply to all operators)


FAR Part 103 - Ultralight Vehicles


FAR Part 105 - Parachute Jumping


FAR Part 108 - Airplane Operator Security


FAR Part 119 - Certification: Air Carriers and Commercial Operators


FAR Part 121 - Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental Air Carriers and Commercial
Operators of Large Aircraft


FAR Part 123 - Travel Clubs


FAR Part 125 - US Civil Airplanes, seating 20 or more passengers or a
maximum payload capacity 6,000# or more


FAR Part 127 - Air Carriers using helicopters for scheduled interstate
flights (within the 48 contiguous states)


FAR Part 129 - Foreign Air Carrier and Foreign Operators of US registered
aircraft engaged in common carriage


FAR Part 133 - Rotorcraft External Load Operations


FAR Part 135 - Air Taxi Operators and Commercial Operators


FAR Part 137 - Agricultural Aircraft Operations


FAR Part 141 - Pilot School
FERRY FLIGHT - A flight for the purpose of (1) returning an aircraft to
base; (2) delivering an aircraft from one location to another; (3) moving an
aircraft to and from a maintenance base. Ferry flights, under certain
conditions, may be conducted under terms of a special flight permit.

FIN - The fixed part of a vertical airfoil that controls the yaw of an
aircraft; the movable part being the RUDDER. Sometime referred to as
Vertical Stabilizer.

FIREWALL - A fire-resistant bulkhead that isolates the engine from other
parts of an airplane's structure.

FISHTAILING - A rudder-controlled side-to-side [yawing] motion to reduce air
speed, generally prior to landing.

FIVE-BY-FIVE (5x5) - In radio jargon, affirms that a radioed transmission
was received clear and loud. Rated one to five, with the first figure for
clearness and the second second for loudness.

FLAPERON - A control surface combining the functions of a flap and an
aileron.

FLAP - A movable, usually hinged airfoil set in the trailing edge of an
aircraft wing, designed to increase lift or drag by changing the camber of
the wing or used to slow an aircraft during landing by increasing lift. Also
see FOWLER FLAP, SLOTTED FLAP, and SPLIT FLAP.

FLARE - A maneuver performed moments before landing in which the nose of an
aircraft is pitched up to minimize the touchdown rate of speed.

FLIGHT ENVELOPE - An aircraft's performance limits, specifically the curves
of speed plotted against other variables to indicate the limits of speed,
altitude, and acceleration that a particular aircraft can not safely exceed.

FLIGHT LEVEL (FL) - A level of constant atmospheric pressure related to a
reference datum of 29.92 inches of mercury. Each is stated in three digits
that represent hundreds of feet - flight level 250 represents a barometric
altimeter indication of 25,000'; flight level 255 an indication of 25,500'.

FLIGHT PLAN - Specified information relating to the intended flight of an
aircraft that is filed orally or in writing with an FSS or an ATC facility.

FLIGHT SERVICE STATION (FSS) - Air traffic facilities which provide pilot
briefing, enroute communications and VFR search and rescue services, assist
lost aircraft and aircraft in emergency situations, relay ATC clearances,
originate Notices to Airmen, broadcast aviation weather and NAS information,
receive and process IFR flight plans, and monitor NAVAIDs. In addition, at
selected locations, FSSs provide Enroute Flight Advisory Service (Flight
Watch), take weather observations, issue airport advisories, and advise
Customs and Immigration of transborder flights.

FLOATPLANE - A water-based aircraft with one or more mounted pontoons, as
differentiated from a hulled SEAPLANE or Flying Boat, but sometimes used
generically.

FLYING WIRES - Interplane bracing wires that help support wingloads when the
plane is in flight. Direction of travel is upward and outward from the
fuselage to the interplane struts. Also known as LIFT WIRES, the opposite of
LANDING WIRES.

FOWLER FLAP - Trademark name of a split-flap attached to a wing through a
system of tracks and rollers to roll the flap backward and downward,
increasing the wing area.

FRISE AILERON - A type of aileron that has a beveled leading edge projecting
beyond its inset hinges. When lowered, it forms an extension of the wing
surface; when raised, its nose protrudes below the wing, increasing drag and
reducing yaw. Named for its inventor, British engineer Leslie George Frise.

FSS SEE FLIGHT SERVICE STATION

FUSELAGE - An aircraft's main body structure housing the flight crew,
passengers, and cargo and to which the wings, tail and, in most
single-engined airplanes, engine are attached. French: fuselé,tapering.

g or G SEE LOAD FACTOR

GAP - The distance between two adjacent wings of a biplane or multiplane.

GCA - Ground-Controlled Approach; part of ILS.

GENERAL AVIATION - That portion of civil aviation which encompasses all
facets of aviation except air carriers holding a certificate of public
convenience and necessity from the Civil Aeronautics Board and large
aircraft commercial operators.

GEOGRAPHIC NORTH - The northern axis around which the Earth revolves; aka
"Map North." Also see MAGNETIC NORTH, TRUE NORTH.

GLASS COCKPIT - Said of an aircraft's control cabin which has
all-electronic, digital and computer-based, instrumentation.

GLIDER - An unpowered aircraft capable of maintaining altitude only briefly
after release from tow, then gliding to earth. Compare SAILPLANE.

GLIDE SLOPE - (1) The angle between horizontal and the glide path of an
aircraft. (2) A tightly-focused radio beam transmitted from the approach end
of a runway indicating the minimum approach angle that will clear all
obstacles; one component of an instrument landing system (ILS).

GPS - Global Positioning System; satellite-based navigation.

GREEN LIGHT - Approval for landing. A carryover expression from days when
aircraft for the most part had no radios, and communication from a control
tower was by means of a light-gun that beamed various green, red, and yellow
signals to pilots in the air and on the ground.

GROSS WEIGHT - The total weight of an aircraft when fully loaded; aka
Takeoff Weight.

GROUND CONTROL - Tower control, by radioed instructions from air traffic
control, of aircraft ground movements at an airport.

GROUND CUSHION SEE GROUND EFFECT

GROUND EFFECT - Increased lift generated by the interaction between a lift
system and the ground when an aircraft is within a wingspan distance above
the ground. It affects a low-winged aircraft more than a mid- or high-winged
aircraft because its wings are closer to the ground; aka GROUND CUSHION.

GROUND SPEED - The actual speed that an aircraft travels over the ground -
its "shadow speed"; it combines the craft's airspeed and the wind speed
relative to the aircraft's direction of flight.

GULL-WING - Descriptive of wing in frontal view bent as the wing of a
seagull; a distinctive shallow, inverted "V" shape - see Stinson SR-7 or
inverted gull-wing Vought F4U.

GYROPLANE - A rotorcraft whose rotors are not engine-driven, except for
initial starting, but are made to rotate by action of the air when the
rotorcraft is moving and whose means of propulsion, usually a conventional
propeller, is independent of the rotor system. Similar to AUTOGYRO.

HANGAR - An enclosed structure for housing aircraft. Originated with the
floating homes of the original German Zeppelins in which they were "hung"
from cables, which explains the erroneous, oft-seen spelling of "hanger."
French: shed, outbuilding, from Latin: angarium,shed.

HELICOPTER - A wingless aircraft acquiring its lift from revolving blades
driven by an engine about a near-vertical axis. A ROTORCRAFT acquiring its
primary motion from engine-driven rotors that accelerate the air downward,
providing a reactive lift force, or accelerate the air at an angle to the
vertical, providing lift and thrust.

HIGH BLOWER - A blower-type supercharger set at high rpm.

HIGH-SPEED STALL - Any stall made to occur at more than 1g, such as pulling
out of a dive or while turning.

HORSEPOWER - The motive energy required to raise 550# one foot in one
second, friction disregarded.

HYPERSONIC - Speed of flight at or greater than Mach 5.0.

IFR - Instrument Flight Rules, governing the conduct of flight under
instrument meteorological conditions.

ILS - Instrument Landing System. A radar-based system allowing ILS-equipped
aircraft to find a runway and land when clouds may be as low as 200 feet (or
lower for special circumstances).

INDICATED AIRSPEED (IAS) - A direct instrument reading obtained from an
airspeed indicator uncorrected for altitude, temperature, atmospheric
density, or instrument error. Compare CALIBRATED AIRSPEED and TRUE AIRSPEED.

INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS (IMC) - Meteorological conditions
expressed in terms of visibility, distance from clouds, and ceiling less
than minima specified for visual meteorological conditions (VMC).

IRON COMPASS - Railroad tracks, as favored by pilots of yore as a dependable
aid to surface navigation.

JOYSTICK - A single floor- or roof-mounted control stick - sideways movement
produces roll, and forward/backward movement produces pitch (rudder pedals
produce yaw).

KNOT - One nautical mile per hour, about 1.15 statute miles (6,080') per
hour.

LAMINAR-FLOW AIFOIL - A low-drag airfoil designed to maintain laminar flow
over a high percentage of the chord about itself. Often relatively thin,
especially along the leading edge, with most of its bulk near the center of
the chord.

LANDING WIRES - Interplane bracing wires that help support wingloads when
the plane is on the ground. Direction of travel is downward and outward from
the fuselage. Opposite of FLYING WIRES.

LIFT - The force exerted on the top of a moving airfoil as a low-pressure
area that causes a wingform to rise.

LIFT-DRAG RATIO - The lift of a wing divided by the drag, or the lift
coefficient divided by the drag coefficient, as the primary measure of the
efficiency of an aircraft; aka L/D Ratio.

LIFT WIRES - Interplane bracing wires that help support wingloads when the
plane is in flight. Direction of travel is upward from the bottom of the
fuselage to the top of the interplane struts. Also known as LIFT WIRES, the
opposite of LANDING WIRES.

LIQUID COMPASS - A non-electronic, calibratable compass floating in a liquid
as a panel instrument; aka Wet Compass.

LOAD FACTOR (g) - The proportion between lift and weight commonly seen as g
(sometimes capitalized) - a unit of force equal to the force of gravity
times one.

LOFTING - Design or fabrication of a complex aircraft component, as with
sheet metal, using actual-size patterns or plans, generally laid out on a
floor. The term is borrowed from boat builders.

LONGERON - A principal longitudinal member of a fuselage's framing, usually
continuous across a number of supporting points.

LOOP ANTENNA - A circular radio antenna, either in the open or in a
streamlined, teardrop housing, remotely turned 360° to fine-tune a station
in league with other radio-directive devices. See also RADIO COMPASS, RADIO
DIRECTION FINDER.

LORAN - Long Range Navigation system, which utilizes timing differences
between multiple low-frequency transmissions to provide accurate
latitude/longitude position information to within 50'.

LTA - Lighter-than-air craft, generally referring to powered blimps and
dirigibles, but often also includes free balloons.

LUNKENHEIMER VALVE - A manual fuel drain placed handily along a fuel line
for checking avgas, such as for water or sediment.

Mach or m. - A number representing the ratio of the speed of an object to
the speed of sound in the surrounding air or medium in which it is moving.

MAGNETIC COMPASS - The most common liquid-type compass, capable of
calibration to compensate for magnetic influences within the aircraft.

MAGNETIC COURSE - COMPASS COURSE ± deviation.

MAGNETIC NORTH - The magnetic North pole, located near 71° North latitude
and 96° West longitude, that attracts a magnetic compass which is not
influenced by local magnetic attraction, as opposed to GEOGRAPHIC NORTH.

MAGNETO, MAG - An accessory that produces and distributes a high-voltage
electric current for ignition of a fuel charge in an internal combustion
engine.

MAGNUS EFFECT - The effect on a spinning cylinder or sphere moving through a
fluid, in which force acts perpendicular to the direction of motion and to
the direction of spin. This is used to advantage in baseball, in which the
trajectory of a pitched ball is a distinct curve. Applied to aeronautics in
experimental wingforms, the Magnus Theory states that if air is directed
against a smooth, revolving cylinder, whose circumferential speed is greater
than that of the air current, a force is directed against one side of the
cylinder - air compressed on one side and vacuum formed on the other -
creating lift. Named after physicist Heinrich Gustav Magnus (1802-70).

MARKER BEACON SEE RADIO NAVIGATION

MEAN SEA LEVEL SEE MSL

MOA SEE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE

MONOCOQUE - Type of fuselage design with little or no internal bracing other
than bulkheads, where the outer skin bears the main stresses; usually round
or oval in cross-section. Additional classifications are (1) Semi-Monocoque,
where the skin is reinforced by longerons or bulkheads, but with no diagonal
web members, and (2) Reinforced Shell, in which the skin is supported by a
complete framework or structural members. French: monocoque,single shell.

MSL - Mean Sea Level. The average height of the surface of the sea for all
stages of tide; used as a reference for elevations, and differentiated from
AGL.

NACELLE - A streamlined enclosure or housing to protect something such as
the crew, engine, or landing gear. French: nacelle,from Latin,
navicella,little ship.

NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM (NAS) - The common network of US airspace; air
navigation facilities, equipment and services, airports or landing areas;
aeronautical charts, information and services; rules, regulations and
procedures, technical information, and human resources and material.
Included are system components shared jointly with the military.

NDB - An L/MF or UHF radio beacon transmitting nondirectional signals
whereby the pilot of an aircraft equipped with direction finding equipment
can determine his bearing to or from the radio beacon and "home" on or track
to or from the station. When the radio beacon is installed in conjuncion
with the Instrument Landing System (ILS) marker, it is normally called a
Compass Locator.

OVERSHOOT - To land well beyond a runwway or planned spot. Opposite of
UNDERSHOOT.

PANTS - A popular word for streamlined, non-load bearing fairings to cover
landing wheels. Also sometimes called Spats or, when fully enclosing the
wheel struts, Skirts.

PAR - Precision Approach Radar, a ground-radar-based instrument approach
providing both horizontal and vertical guidance

PATTERN - The path of aircraft traffic around an airfield, at an established
height and direction. At tower-controlled fields the pattern is supervised
by radio (or, in non-radio or emergency conditions by red and green light
beams) by air traffic controllers.

PAYLOAD - Anything that an aircraft carries beyond what is required for its
operation during flight, theoretically that from which revenue is derived,
such as cargo and passengers.

PCA SEE CONTROLLED AIRSPACE

PHONETICS SEE ALPHABET

PILOT IN COMMAND (PiC) - The pilot responsible for the operation and safety
of an aircraft during flight time.

PITCH - (1) Of the three axes in flight, this specifies the vertical action,
the up-and-down movement. Compare ROLL and YAW. (2) The angle of a propeller
or rotor blade in relation to its arc; also the distance advanced by a blade
in one full rotation.

PITOT TUBE - More accurately but less popularly used, Pitot-Static Tube, a
small tube most often mounted on the outward leading edge of an airplane
wing (out of the propeller stream) that measures the impact pressure of the
air it meets in flight, working in conjuction with a closed, perforated,
coaxial tube that measures the static pressure. The difference in pressures
is calibrated as airspeed by a panel instrument. Named after French
scientist Henri Pitot (1695-1771).

POSITIVE CONTROL - The separation of all air traffic within designated
airspace by air traffic control.

POWER LOADING - The Gross Weight of an airplane divided by the rated
horsepower, computed for Standard Air density.

PUSHER - A propeller mounted in back of its engine, pushing an aircraft
through the air, as opposed to a TRACTOR configuration.

QUADRAPLANE, QUADRUPLANE - An aircraft having four or more wingforms.

RADAR APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY (RAPCON) - A terminal ATC facility that uses
radar and non-radar capabilities to provide approach control services to
aircraft arriving, departing, or transiting airspace controlled by the
facility. This facility provides radar ATC services to aircraft operating in
the vicinity of one or more civil/military airports in a terminal area. The
facility may provide services of a ground-controlled approach (GCA). A radar
approach control facility may be operated by FAA or a military service, or
jointly. Specific facility nomenclatures are used for administrative
purposes only and are related to the physical location of the facility and
the operating service generally:



Army Radar Approach Control (ARAC) (Army)


Radar Air Traffic Control Facility (RATCF) (Navy/FAA)


Radar Approach Control (RAPCON) (Air Force/FAA)


Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) (FAA)


Tower/Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) (FAA , only towers delegated
approach control authority)
RADIO COMPASS SEE RADIO NAVIGATION

RAMJET - An aerodynamic duct in which fuel is burned to produce a
high-velocity propulsive jet. It needs to be accelerated to high speed
before it can become operative.

RING COWLING - A circular engine fairing.

ROGALLO WING - A flexible, delta-wing plan in which three rigid members are
shaped in the form of an arrowhead and joined by a flexible fabric, which
inflates upward under flight loads. Originally specific to paragliders, but
now found on some powered aircraft.

ROLL - Of the three axes in flight, this specifies the action around a
central point. Compare PITCH and YAW.

ROTARY ENGINE - A powerplant that rotates on a stationary propeller shaft.
An American invention by Adams-Farwell Co (1896), it was first used for
buses and trucks in the US (1903), then copied by French engineers for early
aircraft engines (1914).

ROTORCRAFT - A heavier-than-air aircraft that depends principally for its
support in flight on the lift generated by one or more rotors. Includes
helicopters and gyroplanes.

RUDDER - The movable part of a vertical airfoil which controls the yaw of an
aircraft; the fixed part being the FIN.

SAILPLANE - An unpowered, soaring aircraft capable of maintaining level
flight for long periods of time after release from tow and of gaining
altitude using wind currents, as opposed to a GLIDER.

SCRAMJET - Acronym for supersonic combustion ramjet, in which combustion
occurs at supersonic air velocities through the engine.

SCUD - A low, foglike cloud layer.

SEAPLANE - A water-based aircraft with a boat-hull fuselage, often
amphibious.The term is also used generically to define a similar Flying Boat
and a pontoon FLOATPLANE.

SECONDARY STALL - Any stall resulting from pulling back too soon and too
hard while recovering from any other stall. Usually a HIGH-SPEED or
ACCELERATED STALL.

SERVICE CEILING - The height above sea level at which an aircraft with
normal rated load is unable to climb faster than 100' per minute under
Standard Air conditions.

SESQUI-WING - A lesser-span additional wingform, generally placed below the
main planes of an aircraft, generally a biplane.

SHOULDER-WING - A mid-wing monoplane with its wing mounted directly to the
top of the fuselage without use of cabane struts.

SIDESLIP - A movement of an aircraft in which a relative flow of air moves
along the lateral axis, resulting in a sideways movement from a projected
flight path, especially a downward slip toward the inside of a banked turn.

SINK, SINKING SPEED - The speed at which an aircraft loses altitude,
especially in a glide in still air under given conditions of equilibrium.

SKID - Too shallow a bank in a turn, causing an aircraft to slide outward
from its ideal turing path.

SLATS - Movable vanes or auxiliary airfoils, usually set along the leading
edge of a wing but able to be lifted away at certain angles of attack.

SLIP - Too steep a bank in a turn, causing an aircraft to slide inward from
its ideal turing path.

SLIPSTREAM - The flow of air driven backward by a propeller or downward by a
rotor.

SLOT - A long, narrow, spanwise gap in a wing, usually near the leading
edge, to improve airflow at high angles of attack for slower landing speeds.

SLOTTED FLAP - A flap that, when depressed, exposes a slot and increases
airflow between itself and the rear edge of the wing.

SMOH - "Since Major Overhaul," an acronym seen in reference to the operating
hours, or time remaining, on an engine.

SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE (SUA) - Airspace of defined dimensions identified by an
area on the surface of the earth wherein activities must be confined because
of their nature and/or wherein limitations may be imposed upon aircraft
operations that are not a part of those activities:



Alert Area - Airspace which may contain a high volume of pilot training
activities or an unusual type of aerial activity, neither of which is
hazardous to aircraft. Alert Areas are depicted on aeronautical charts for
the information of non-participating pilots. All activities within an Alert
Area are conducted in accordance with Federal Aviation Regulations, and
pilots of participating aircraft as well as pilots transiting the area are
equally responsible for collision avoidance.


Military Operations Area (MOA) - Airspace established outside of Class A
airspace area to separate or segregate certain non-hazardous military
activities from IFR traffic and to identify for VFR traffic where these
activities are conducted.


Prohibited Area - Airspace designated under part 73 within which no person
may operate an aircraft without the permission of the using agency.


Restricted Area - Airspace designated under FAR Part 73, within which the
flight of aircraft, while not wholly prohibited, is subject to restriction.
Most restricted areas are designated joint use and IFR/VFR operations in the
area may be authorized by the controlling ATC facility when it is not being
utilized by the using agency. Restricted areas are depicted on enroute
charts. Where joint use is authorized, the name of the ATC controlling
facility is also shown.


Warning Area - A warning area is airspace of defined dimensions extending
from 3 nautical miles outward from the coast of the USA, that contains
activity that may be hazardous to non-participating aircraft. The purpose of
such warning area is to warn non-participating pilots of the potential
danger. A warning area may be located over domestic or international waters
or both.
SPLIT FLAP - A flap built into the underside of a wing, as opposed to a Full
Flap wherein a whole portion of the trailing edge is used.

SPOILER - A long, movable, narrow plate along the upper surface of an
airplane wing used to reduce lift and increase drag by breaking or spoiling
the smoothness of the airflow.

SPONSON - A short, winglike protuberance on each side of a seaplane to
increase lateral stability.

SQUAWK - A four-digit number which is dialed into his transponder by a pilot
to identify his aircraft to air traffic controllers

STABILATOR - A movable horizontal tail that combines the actions of a
stabilizer and elevator, increasing longitudinal stability while creating a
pitching moment.

STABILIZER - The fixed part of a horizontal airfoil that controls the pitch
of an aircraft; the movable part being the ELEVATOR.

STAGGER - The relative longitudinal position of the wings on a biplane.
Positive Stagger is when the upper wing's leading edge is in advance of that
of the lower wing [eg: Waco YKS], and vice versa for Negative Stagger [eg:
Beechcraft D17].

STALL - (1) Sudden loss of lift when the angle of attack increases to a
point where the flow of air breaks away from a wing or airfoil, causing it
to drop. (2) A maneuver initiated by the steep raising of an aircraft's
nose, resulting in a loss of velocity and an abrupt drop.

STANDARD AIR (Standard Atmosphere) - An arbitrary atmosphere established for
calibration of aircraft instruments. Standard Air Density is 29.92 inches of
mercury and temperature of 59° F, equivalent to an atmospheric air pressure
of 14.7# per square inch.

STANDARD RATE TURN - A turn in which the heading of an aircraft changes 3°
per second, or 360° in two minutes.

STATIC WIRE - A clip-on wire used to ground an aircraft by drawing off
static electricity, a potential fire hazard, during refueling.

SUA SEE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE

SUPERSONIC - Speed of flight at or greater than Mach 1.0; literally, faster
than the speed of sound.

SWEEPBACK - A backward inclination of an airfoil from root to tip in a way
that causes the leading edge and often the trailing edge to meet relative
wind obliquely, as wingforms that are swept back.

SWING-WING - A wing whose horizontal angle to the fuselage centerline can be
adjusted in flight to vary aircraft motion at differing speeds.

TAILDRAGGER SEE CONVENTIONAL GEAR

TARMAC - (1) A bituminous material used in paving; a trade name for Tar
MacAdam. (2) An airport surface paved with this substance, especially a
runway or an APRON at a hangar.

TAS - True Airspeed. Because an airspeed indicator indicates true airspeed
only under standard sea-level conditions, true airspeed is usually
calculated by adjusting an Indicated Airspeed according to temperature,
density, and pressure. Compare CALIBRATED AIR SPEED and INDICATED AIR SPEED.

TCA SEE CONTROLLED AIRSPACE

TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA (TRSA) - Airspace surrounding designated
airports wherein ATC provides radar vectoring, sequencing, and separation on
a full-time basis for all IFR and participating VFR aircraft. Service
provided at a TRSA is called Stage III Service. TRSAs are depicted on VFR
aeronautical charts. Pilot participation is urged but is not mandatory.

TETRAHEDRON - Ground-based, free-rotating, triangular-shaped wind direction
indicator, genrally placed near a runway.

THRUST - The driving force of a propeller in the line of its shaft or the
forward force produced in reaction to the gases expelled rearward from a jet
or rocket engine. Opposite of DRAG.

TORQUE - A twisting, gyroscopic force acting in opposition to an axis of
rotation, such as with a turning propeller; aka Torsion.

TOUCH-AND-GO - Landing practice wherein an aircraft does not make a full
stop after a landing, but proceeds immediately to another take-off.

TRACTOR - A propeller mounted in front of its engine, pulling an aircraft
through the air, as opposed to a PUSHER configuration.

TRAILING EDGE - The rearmost edge of an aerofoil.

TRANSPONDER - An airborne transmitter that responds to ground-based
interrogation signals to provide air traffic controllers with more accurate
and reliable position information than would be possible with "passive"
radar; may also provide air traffic control with an aircraft's altitude.

TRIM TAB - A small, auxiliary control surface in the trailing edge of a
wingform, adjustable mechanically or by hand, to counteract ("trim")
aerodynamic forces on the main control surfaces.

TRUE AIRSPEED - The speed of an aircraft along its flight path, in respect
to the body of air (air mass) through which the aircraft is moving. Also see
CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, GROUND SPEED, INDICATED AIRSPEED.

TRUE NORTH - The northern direction of the axis of the Earth; aka "Map
North." GEOGRAPHICAL NORTH, as opposed to MAGNETIC NORTH.

TURBOJET - An aircraft having a jet engine in which the energy of the jet
operates a turbine that in turn operates the air compressor.

TURBOPROP - An aircraft having a jet engine in which the energy of the jet
operates a turbine that drives the propeller.

ULTRALIGHT - An aeronautical vehicle operated for sport or recreational
purposes which does not require FAA registration, an airworthiness
certificate, nor pilot certification. Primarily single-occupant vehicles,
although some two-place vehicles are authorized for training purposes.
Operation of an ultralight vehicle in certain airspaces requires
authorization from ATC.

UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE - Class G Airspace; airspace not designated as Class
A, B, C, D or E.

UNDERCARRIAGE - The landing gear of a land-based aircraft, including struts,
frames, and wheels.

UNDERSHOOT - To land short of a runwway or planned landing spot. Opposite is
OVERSHOOT.

UNICOM - A common radio frequency (usually 121.0 mHz) used at uncontrolled
(non-tower) airports for local pilot communication.

UPWASH - The slight, upward flow of air just prior to its reaching the
leading edge of a rapidly moving airfoil.

UPWIND TURN - Long a point of contest among pilots, there is in reality no
such thing as far as the airplane is concerned. Proponents claim that
airplanes lose airspeed when turning upwind, while opponents (and the laws
of physics) argue that an airplane, like a boat in a river whose speed is
only relative to the shore, is unaffected within the movement of an air mass
and that it loses only groundspeed.

USEFUL LOAD - The weight of crew, passengers, fuel, baggage, and ballast,
generally excluding emergency or portable equipment and ordnance.

V - Velocity, now used in defining airspeeds:



VA = Maneuvering Speed (max structural speed for full control deflection)


VD = Max Dive Speed (for certification only)


VFE = Max Flaps Extended Speed


VLE = Max Landing Gear Extended Speed


VLO = Max Landing Gear Operation Speed


VNE = Never Exceed Speed


VNO = Max Structural Cruising Speed


VS0 = Stalling Speed Landing Configuration


VS1 = Stalling Speed in a specified Configuration


VX = Best Angle of Climb Speed


VXSE = Best Angle of Climb Speed, one engine out


VY = Best Rate of Climb Speed


VYSE = Best Rate of Climb Speed, one engine out
VARIOMETER - A panel instrument, often as simple as a tiny ball in a
vertical tube, indicating subtle pitch movements of an aircraft.

VENTRAL FIN - A fin/rudder extension on the bottom of a fuselage. Opposite
of DORSAL FIN.

VENTURI TUBE - A small, hourglass-shaped metal tube, usually set laterally
on a fuselage in the slipstream to create suction for gyroscopic panel
instruments. Now outdated by more sophisticated means.

VFR - Visual Flight Rules that govern the procedures for conducting flight
under visual conditions. The term is also used in the US to indicate weather
conditions that are equal to or greater than minimum VFR requirements. Also
used by pilots and controllers to indicate a type of flight plan.

VFR ON TOP - Flight in which a cloud ceiling exists but modified VISUAL
FLIGHT RULES are in effect if the aircraft travels above the cloud layer.

VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS (VMC) - Meteorological conditions expressed
in terms of visibility, distance from clouds, and ceiling equal to or better
than specified minima.

VOR - VHF Omnirange. A ground-based navigation aid transmitting very high
frequency (VHF) navigation signals 360° in azimuth, on radials oriented from
magnetic north. The VOR periodically identifies itself by Morse Code and may
have an additional voice identification feature. Voice features can be used
by ATC or FSS for transmitting information to pilots.

VORTAC - VOR + TACAN (Tactical Air Navigation); combined radio navigation
aids.

VSI - Vertical Speed Indicator. A panel instrument that gauges rate of climb
or descent in feet-per-minute (fpm). Also Rate Of Climb Indicator.

WASH-IN, WASH-OUT - A method of increasing lift by increasing (Wash-In) or
decreasing (Wash-Out) the angle of incidence on the outer part of an
airplane wing to counteract the effects of engine torque.

WET COMPASS SEE COMPASS

WINGLET - A small, stabilizing, rudderlike addition to the tips of a wing to
control or employ air movement.

WING LOADING - The maximum take-off (Gross) weight of an aircraft divided by
its wing area.

YAW - Of the three axes in flight, this specifies the side-to-side movement
of an aircraft on its vertical axis, as in skewing. Compare PITCH and ROLL.

YOKE - The control wheel of an aircraft, akin to a automobile steering
wheel.









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  #2  
Old September 11th 05, 06:16 PM
Frank
external usenet poster
 
Posts: n/a
Default

GOOGLE is your friend .....

"karel" wrote in message
...
lurking around here for several years has tought me very much of course,
thanks to all!
however a couple of terms pop up regularly without their meaning
becoming clear from the context, and doubtlessly they are so
self-evident to those in the know that no-one cares to explain them.
To this non-pilot (less than a year to go, though!)
who is not a native English speaker either,
a couple of terms want explanation, though.

What is the turtledeck? A part of or place in the cockpit, obviously?

What is a cantilever wing? I learned a laminar wing is one that tries
to achive laminar airflow, to some extent.
But I fancy "cantilever" rather indicates some type of construction?

BTW is there some web page anywhere carrying a glossary?
If not could we not create one & perhaps add it to Ron's FAQ list?

Karel.





  #3  
Old September 13th 05, 09:39 PM
external usenet poster
 
Posts: n/a
Default


Bashir Salamati wrote:
On Sun, 11 Sep 2005 08:06:35 -0000, "karel"
wrote:

:lurking around here for several years has tought me very much of course,
:thanks to all!
:however a couple of terms pop up regularly without their meaning
:becoming clear from the context, and doubtlessly they are so
:self-evident to those in the know that no-one cares to explain them.
:To this non-pilot (less than a year to go, though!)
:who is not a native English speaker either,
:a couple of terms want explanation, though.
:
:What is the turtledeck? A part of or place in the cockpit, obviously?

The area just behind the pilot's head, in an open cockpit. Less
frequently, in a pusher, the area between the canopy and the engine
cowling.


To elaborate a bit, the turtledeck starts just behind the pilot's
head and then typically tapers backwards blending into the tail
section so as to streamline the aircraft minimizing turbulence
over the upper rear fuselage ahead of the rudder.

:
:What is a cantilever wing? I learned a laminar wing is one that tries
:to achive laminar airflow, to some extent.
:But I fancy "cantilever" rather indicates some type of construction?

Yes, it is a wing where all the bending strength is in the internal
wing spars, rather than in bracing or wires. A Piper Cherokee is a
cantilever wing, a Cessna 172 is not.


In structural engineering a cantilever is a beam that is attached
to its support at one end only. So a cantilever wing is a wing
that is attached to the fuselage at the wing root only, with
no external struts or braces.

Once it dawned on me that "wings are beams" a whole lot fell into
place.

--

FF

 




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